On Saturday 4th June 2016, a group of us from Hellier Street, joined by a few extras, travelled to the British Museum. The Lord blessed us with safe travel and good weather. Colin Tyler was our tour guide for the day, he spent a lot of time researching what he was going to show us and talk to us about, for which we were all grateful for his hard work. The focus of the visit was artefacts from the Bible, looking at the different nations and kings. The tour was like stepping back in time as we were led through Assyrian, Egyptian, Persian and Roman artefacts. It is fascinating seeing things that would once have been seen by the prophets and kings/queens of the Bible. Below are some images from what we saw at the museum. There are a large number of people who visit the museum daily, however the relevance of them tying in with the Bible does not even cross their minds. If anyone is planning a trip to the British Museum to look at Bible artefacts, Colin would be a good person to talk to for advice about what to see. I would highly recommend any Christian to go and have a look, seeing physical objects before your eyes can really help bring the Bible to life even more.
Here are a few of the highlights that we saw during the day:
A panel from the palace in Susa. Mordecai and Esther would have seen these regularly-
The Rosetta Stone. This stone was key to being able to decipher the Ancient Egyptian writing, Hieroglyhics-
Part of the lion hunt by Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria-
The Balawat gates of Shalmaneser III, Assyrian king-
'Britain has priests, but they are fools; numerous ministers, but they are shameless, clerics, but they are plunderers' (Gildas 540's A.D.)
We had our own corruption it seems before Rome sent Augustine (the 1st Archbishop of Canterbury) the 'Apostle to the English' in 595 A.D. (This date is given in history lessons as to when Christianity reached the shores of the UK)
Winston Churchill's in his book 'A history of the English speaking peoples'states that the gospel came to Britain within weeks of Pentecost!
The best answer on the subject is from the works of Joseph Siess.
The first essential element of Christianity is repentance. The easiest way to show what this is will be to show what it is not.
First, it does not consist of a mere confession of sins. This is a part but not the whole. A man may condemn himself in the most debasing language, sit in sackcloth and ashes, all without avail. The Pharisees confessed sins after the manner of their formalism daily, but very few of them repented.
Second, it is not sorrow and weeping on account of privations and distress brought upon us by our sins, to be regarded as genuine repentance. We may be sorry for a course of conduct because it brought us into serious difficulties, and not hate that course of conduct itself. Esau wept for the consequences but not for their cause.
Third, it is not the occasional meltings of natural affection. Some are constitutionally more soft and yielding than others. A sermon may dissolve them to tears, a tale of the Savior’s sufferings may melt them to tenderness but never bring them to repentance. Orpah wept and lamented and then returned to the Moabites and their idolatry.
Fourth, it is not deep conviction and remorse for sin. Felix trembled under the pungency of his conviction, but turned away from the light. Judas was overwhelmed with remorse but landed in hell.
Fifth, it is not a glad hearing of the gospel, a compliance with its outward requisitions. Herod heard John gladly, and did many things which he taught, but afterward beheaded him for the gratification of his woman.
True repentance embraces conviction of sin, contrition for sin, confession of sin and abandonment of sin. Different individuals may experience these states of mind and these dispositions of heart in different degrees according to their various constitutions and temperaments, the history and intellect, but in every instance they are indispensable qualities of a genuine penitent.
When convicted of sin, the individual clearly sees and deeply feels his natural depravity and practical wickedness: his conscience, awake to guilt and exquisitely sensitive, becomes painfully oppressive; and his spirits droop under the dread of final condemnation and endless punishment. This conviction is wrought by the agency of the Holy Spirit through the instrumentality of scriptural truth. That it is not a natural and original operation of the mind itself, is evident from the indisputable fact, that the uniform tendency of sin is to darken the mind, harden the heart, and scar the conscience. The longer the sinner persists in transgression, the more his moral blindness and insensibility will increase. But the state of conviction implies light and tenderness and a quick conscience. Hence, no man need doubt that these circumstances are sufficient indications of the presence and action of the Holy Spirit. The part of man in this is to receive the truth in love of the truth and to submit to the will of God as directed by the convicting word.
What verses in the Bible help you with increasing confidence in yourself? With regard to verses in the Bible helping to increase confidence in yourself, we need to start by realizing just what condition we are in. We are told by many today that man is the ultimate being, the final development in evolution, the one who can achieve anything. If you believe it, you are it and if you believe you can do it, then it's done. These are statements that are all too commonly heard today.
However, the Bible is very clear on the state of man. First of all, before we can even begin to look at the question of confidence, we need to look at our state before God. Consider the following verses carefully.
Psalm 14:1-3"The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good. The LORD looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there were any that did understand, and seek God. They are all gone aside, they are all together become filthy: there is none that doeth good, no, not one."
Psalm 51:5"Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me."
Psalm 58:3"The wicked are estranged from the womb: they go astray as soon as they be born, speaking lies."
Romans 3:23"For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;"
Romans 6:23"For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord."
The first thing we need to realize is that we all, every one of us, are not only sinners now, but were conceived and born in sin. This sin nature separates us from God, and until that situation is remedied in our own personal lives we will remain separated from Him and in danger of hellfire.
The remedy is only found in one Person; the Lord Jesus Christ.
John 3:16"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life."
John 14:6"Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me."
2 Corinthians 5:21"For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him."
It is my personal belief that a lack of self confidence often stems from a lack of self worth. This can result from a whole host of circumstances in our lives, yet Satan will seek always to remind us of these. Yet, the wonder of the Gospel is that the Lord Jesus Christ proved to us our own worth by dying for us at Calvary, that through faith in Him we might be saved. We need to understand just how much God loves us.
John 15:13-14"Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you."
Romans 5:7-8"For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die. But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us."
1 John 3:16"Hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us: and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren."
1 John 4:10"Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins."
You see, we all need to realize that God loves us, God loves you as an individual, just the way you are, and he openly displayed that love for you by the giving of His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ at Calvary. When we accept this wonderful truth, His precious blood cleanses us from all our sin, and we stand redeemed in Him. We can then more fully understand the wonderful statement made in Hebrews 2:11"For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren."
Those who trust in the finished work of the Lord Jesus Christ for their salvation He is not ashamed to call brethren. What a wonderful truth that is. Now if Jesus Christ is not ashamed of us, why should we be ashamed of ourselves? We can rest and glory in Him, and we can learn the truth that the apostle Paul learned that could make him say of the Lord Jesus Christ in Acts 17:28"For in him we live, and move, and have our being; as certain also of your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring."
When we become a Christian, we become a new creature in Christ. Old things are passed away, and we live in Him. Therefore, our confidence is not in ourselves, what we can do, or how good we are; our confidence is in Jesus Christ and what He has already done. Some verses that might help with this are:
Psalm 118:8"It is better to trust in the LORD than to put confidence in man."
Proverbs 3:26"For the LORD shall be thy confidence, and shall keep thy foot from being taken."
Proverbs 14:26"In the fear of the LORD is strong confidence: and his children shall have a place of refuge."
Philippians 4:13"I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me."
1 John 2:28"And now, little children, abide in him; that, when he shall appear, we may have confidence, and not be ashamed before him at his coming."
1 John 5:14"And this is the confidence that we have in him, that, if we ask any thing according to his will, he heareth us:"
In the book of Ephesians Chapter 6 verses 11-18 we read of the armour of God that a Christian should always find himself clothed in. Prior to these instructions, we read in verse 10 the following words: "Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might."
I think that sums up what I'm trying to say about self confidence. It's all about the Lord Jesus Christ, who He is, what He's done and how He is with those that trust in Him.
(Originally posted by Will Kinney on the facebook discussion group 'King James Bible Debate')
The verses in question have been in every Bible we know about in history in every language it was ever printed in, except the liberal RSV that removed them, and then the NRSV put them back in again.
Even critical text versions like the ESV, NIV, NASB and the modern Catholic versions keep these verses in their "bible" versions, although sometimes in brackets or in smaller italicized letters.
If they really believe they are NOT inspired Scripture, then let them take a solid stand on their mistaken convictions, and simply OMIT them. But don't keep sitting on the fence and sowing doubt as to the true words of God. Oh...wait....THAT'S what they DO anyway, isn't it!
As To MANUSCRIPTS, there are none older than the fourth century, and the oldest two uncial MSS. Vaticanus and Sinaiticus are without those twelve verses. Of all the others (consisting of some eighteen uncials and some six hundred cursive MSS. which contain the Gospel of Mark) contain these twelve verses.
There are also some very curious irregularities with both Vaticanus and Sinaiticus. As Dean Burgon testifies, the Vatican manuscript has only one blank space in the entire manuscript and it is here at the ending of Mark 16:8. He says "it is amply sufficient to contain the verses, the column in question being the only vacant one in the whole manuscript." The Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels, Volume 1, page 298.
As for Sinaticus, according to Dean Burgon pages 298-299, even Tischendorf (who discovered this codex) believed this whole section was originally canceled out and written over by a different scribe than the one who wrote most of the manuscript. Suddenly the letters in the columns become much larger than at any other place in the codex, either before or after. Dean Burgon points out that if the letters had been written in the normal size, there would be ample room for these missing 12 verses.
See - The Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels, pages 298-299 The Last Twelve Verses of Mark.
Even the UBS, Nestle-Aland critical textual apparatus show the overwhelming textual evidence that exists for the inclusion of these 12 verses. They are contained in the Majority of all remaining Greek manuscripts, including A, C, D, K, and other uncial (capital lettered) copies. They are found in the Old Latin aur, c, d, ff2, l, n, o, q, the Vulgate, the Syriac Curetonian, Peshitta, Palestinian and Harclean ancient versions, as well as the Coptic Sahidic, Boharic, the Gothic, the Armenian, the Ethiopic and the Georgian ancient versions and the early Greek Diatessaron.
As to the Versions:--
THE SYRIAC. The oldest is the Syriac in its various forms : the "Peshitto" (cent. 2), and the "Curetonian Syriac" (cent. 3). Both are older than any Greek MS. in existence, and both contain these twelve verses. So with the "Philoxenian" (cent. 5) and the "Jerusalem" (cent. 5).
THE LATIN VERSIONS. JEROME (A.D. 382), who had access to Greek MSS. older than any now extant, includes these twelve verses; but this Version (known as the Vulgate) was only a revision of the VETUS ITALA, which is believed to belong to cent. 2, and contains these verses.
THE GOTHIC VERSION (A.D. 350) contains them.
THE EGYPTIAN VERSIONS: the Memphitic (or Lower Egyptian, less properly called "COPTIC"), belonging to cent. 4 or 5, contains them; as does the "THEBAIC" (or Upper Egyptian, less properly called the "SAHIDIC"), belonging to cent. 3.
THE ARMENIAN (cent. 5), the ETHIOPIC (cent. 4-7), and the GEORGIAN (cent. 6) also bear witness to the genuineness of these verses.
THE FATHERS. Whatever may be their value as to doctrine and interpretation yet, in determining actual word or their form, or sequence their evidence, even by an allusion, as to whether a verse or verses existed or not in their day, is more valuable than even manuscripts or Versions. There are nearly a hundred ecclesiastical writers older than the oldest of our Greek codices; while between A.D. 300 and A.D. 600 there are about two hundred more, and they all refer to these twelve verses.
1. PAPIAS (about A.D. 100) refers to v. 18 (as stated by Eusebius, Hist. Ecc. iii. 39).
2. JUSTIN MARTYR (A.D. 151) quotes v. 20 (Apol. I. c. 45).
3. IRENAEUS (A.D. 180) quotes and remarks on v. 19 (Adv. Hoer. lib. iii. c. x.).
5. VINCENTIUS (A.D. 256) quoted two verses at the seventh Council of Carthage, held under CYPRIAN.
6. The ACTA PILATI (cent. 2) quotes vv. 15, 16, 17, 18 (Tischendorf's ed., 1852, pp. 243, 351).
7. The APOSTOLICAL CONSTITUTIONS (cent. 3 or 4) quotes vv. 16, 17, 18.
8. EUSEBIUS (A.D. 325) discusses these verses, as quoted by MARINUS from a lost part of his History.
9. APHRAARTES (A.D. 337), a Syrian bishop, quoted vv. 16-18 in his first Homily (Dr. Wright's ed., 1869, i. p. 21).
10. AMBROSE (A.D. 374-97), Archbishop of Milan, freely quotes vv. 15 (four times), 16, 17, 18 (three times), and v. 20 (once).
11. CHRYSOSTOM (A.D. 400) refers to v. 9; and states that vv. 19, 20 are "the end of the Gospel".
12. JEROME (b. 331, d. 420) includes these twelve verses in his Latin translation, besides quoting vv. 9 and 14 in his other writings.
13. AUGUSTINE (fl. A.D. 395-430) more than quotes them. He discusses them as being the work of the Evangelist MARK, and says that they were publicly read in the churches.
14. NESTORIUS (cent. 5) quotes v. 20 and
15. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA (A.D. 430) accepts the quotation.
16. VICTOR OF ANTIOCH (A.D. 425) confutes the opinion of Eusebius, by referring to very many MSS. which he had seen, and so had satisfied himself that the last twelve verses were recorded in them.
John MacArthur also does not believe that 12 verses as found in Mark 16:9-20 are inspired Scripture and should be in our Bible. To see a very well done refutation of John MacArthur's arguments for their omission, see these Youtube videos done by James Snapp Jr. He completely demolishes MacArthur's position on these verses.
The following post was posted on facebook by John Hinton;
Some of my favorite examples of nonsensical and downright stupid attacks on the King James Bible concern 2 Samuel 5:8.
2 Samuel 5:8 And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, that are hated of David s soul, he shall be chief and captain. Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house.
The Bible critics who put together the New English Bible chose to be the authors of confusion by making the farfetched claim that the Hebrew word tsinnor was connected to an Akkadian word for "grappling hook", a translation that they based on a speculation of Albright. The fact that no such cognate is known to exist in Hebrew did not influence this ridiculous speculation. There is even a lunatic "scholar" who made the surrealistically bizarre suggestion that it meant "penis"!1 How this clown came up with that one is beyond me. His mind was not on the gutter, but in the gutter.
These theories were in response to a mistaken belief that the Pool of Siloam was outside of the walls of the city, which led foolish men to assume that the translators of the Bible were mistaken by calling it a gutter, or a water shaft. They also made the false claim that the divinely led translators of the King James Bible did not know what it meant when they (and Aquila) translated it as gutter. However, due to the excavations of Kathleen Kenyon, we now know that there was another wall that the NEB era translators did not know about, and the pool of Siloam was well within it. Obviously, God's word was correct and those who wished to correct it were wrong. There was no reason to question the Bible's historical account of this event, and no reason to question the King James Bible's translation of it. What is particularly telling is that the King James translators did not have any idea that the Jebusite Shaft even existed; God was fulfilling his promise to preserve his word, and those who tried to discredit it were the ones who were discredited and shown to be fools.
One arrogant scholar, Clifford Wilson, a professed anti-Darwinist and anti-Marxist defender of the Bible, even made the simpleminded statement that the King James Bible translators had it wrong by translating tsinnor as "gutter" when it meant, as he explained it, a "stream or watercourse." It is a shame that this foolish blowhard, in his haste to promote false Bibles (that are compiled by Darwinists and Marxists) did not bother to use an English dictionary. The Oxford Universal Dictionary defines gutter thus: "1. A watercourse; later a small brook or channel -1797. b. A furrow or track made by running water 1586." What did this false Bible defender think that it meant -- a house gutter, a gutter by the curb of a road, or perhaps a part of a pool table?
Romans 1:22 "Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools"
Endnote1Quoted by Shanks, Hershel. The City of David: A guide to biblical Jerusalem. Washington, D.C.: The Biblical Archaeology Society, 1975, p. 27 ff. This is not the theory of Shanks himself, but he does refer to this unnamed idiot as being "reputable."
Your servant in Christ, John Hinton, Ph.D.
Bible Restoration Ministry
A ministry seeking the translating and reprinting of KJV equivalent Bibles in all the languages of the world.
The perfect tense of ge, graptai (translated It is written) shows clearly that the words inspired in the past have been preserved in the present. Regarding the perfect tense H.P. Nunn in The Elements of the New Testament Greek writes:
The Perfect tense....donates that the action of the verb is to be regarded as brought to its appropriate conclusion at the time of speaking in such a way that its results will remain in action. The Perfect has therefore as much to do with Present as with Past time, since it describes the present result of a past action. p 91.
The Roman Catholic 'superpower' of Spain sets sail to conquer England with her 'armada'.
Forces of 'nature' (we know it was God) in the form of strong winds played a major part in destroying the Spanish fleet.
The Hampton Court Conference met and a new bible translation in English was agreed
We all know the story of the 'Gunpowder Plot' where Guy Fawkes and his Jesuit mates tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament.
The plot was revealed to the authorities in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on 26 October 1605.
The Authorised Version is published
If the 'Spanish Armada' and the 'Gunpowder Plot' had been successful the massive Authorised Version translation project would never had happened.
The Authorised Version has been used mightily by God through history and men of God such as John & Charles Wesley, George Whitfield, George Muller, Charles Spurgeon, Jonathan Edward, D. L. Moody & Billy Sunday have all used the Authorised Version while doing the Lord's work.
Is the thwarting of Roman Catholic attempts to overthrow protestant England highlighted above just down to chance or the providence of God! We would say the latter!
A debate took place between Dr. Jack Moorman and Dr. James White a year or two ago which can be viewed on Youtube.
During that debate James White made the following statements.
“I did want to correct just one misapprehension. Sinaiticus was not found in or near a trashcan. That is a common myth, but it’s untrue. All you have to do is read Constantine von Tischendorf’s own first-hand account of his discovery of the manuscript. A monk brought it out of the closet, the cell, wrapped in red cloth. Folks, people in monasteries do not wrap garbage in red cloths, O.K?”
Having read Tischendorf’s account of his discovery of what we now call the Sinaiticus manuscripts some time previously, Dr. White’s assertion rang alarm bells. So let’s turn to Tischendorf;s account and check out Dr. White on this point.
The volume I am referring to is;
Codex Sinaiticus, The Ancient Biblical Manuscript Now in the British Museum.
Tischendorf’s Story and Argument Related by Himself.
Second Impression of the Third Edition. 1934
London, The Lutterworth Press, 6 Bouverie Street E.C.
Tischendorf’s original account was in German, but my reference copy is an English translation. Bold type in Greenare my emphases. In the preface to this eighth edition at page 7 we read,
“The story of the discoveries of the celebrated scholar in 1844 and 1859 is here related in his own words.”
The first thing therefore we must observe is that Tischendorf made at least two visitsto St. Catherine’s monastery at the foot of Mt. Sinai. This is subsequently born out in the account following by Tischendorf himself. Furthermore, the translator adds a few facts which are pertinent here. On page 9, the translator refers to,
“…the discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript, the full particulars of which are given to the English reader in the following pages.”
And on page 10, the translator says,
“We have only to add that this version into English was undertaken with the express approbation of the Author…”
On the strength of these assertions, I believe I hold a reputable account in this volume of the events exactly as they happened.
Now we turn to the words of Tischendorf himself. He writes at page 16,
“In sitting down to write a popular version of my pamphlet, the Zwickau Society also expressed a wish that I should preface it with a short account of my researches, and especially of my discovery of the Sinaitic Codex, which naturally takes an important place in my list of documentary proofs.”
Moving on to page 23, Tischendorf there gives specific details of hisfirst visit to Mt Sinai.
“It was in April, 1844, that I embarked at Leghorn for Egypt. The desire which I felt to discover some precious remains of any manuscripts, more especially Biblical, of a date which would carry us back to the early times of Christianity, was realized beyond my expectations. It was at the foot of Mount Sinai, in the Convent of Saint Catherine, that I discovered the pearl of all my researches. In visiting the library of the monastery in the month of May, 1844, I perceived in the middle of the great hall a large and wide basket full of old parchments; and the librarian, who was a man of information, told me that two heaps of paper like these, mouldered by time, hadbeen already committed to the flames.What was my surprise to find amid this heap of papers a considerable number of sheets of the Old Testament in Greek, which seemed to me to be one of the most ancient I had ever seen. The authorities of the convent allowed me to possess myself of a third of these parchments, or about forty-three sheets, all the more readily as they were destined for the fire. But I could not get them to yield up possession of the remainder. The too lively satisfaction which I had displayed had aroused their suspicions as to the value of this manuscript. I…enjoined on the monks to take religious care of all such remains which might fall in their way.”
“Folks, people in monasteries do not wrap garbage in red cloths, O.K?”says Dr. White.
That’s right Dr. White, they burn it! Unless they perhaps get wind later that someone will pay good money for it.
Tischendorf continues, having returned to Saxony,
“But these home labours upon the manuscripts which I had already gathered did not allow me to forget the distant treasure which I had discovered.[i] I made use of an influential frien, who then resided at the Court of the Viceroy of Egypt, to carry on negotiations for procuring the rest of the manuscripts; but his attempts were, unfortunately, not successful. “The monks of the convent,” he wrote to me to say, “have, since your departure, learned the value of these sheets of parchment and will not part with them at any price.”
We learn on page 24 that Tischendorf made a second visit to the monastery in 1853, “but I was not able to discover any further traces of the treasure of 1844.”
We read of third visit at page 26.
“..in the commencement of January, 1859, I again set sail for the East…By the end of the month of January I had reached the Convent of Mount Sinai…After having devoted a few days in turning over the manuscripts of the convent, not without alighting here and there on some precious parchment or other, I told my Bedouins, on the 4th February, to hold themselves in readiness to set out with their dromedaries for Cairo on the 7th, when an entirely fortuitous circumstance carried me at once to the goal of all my desires. On the afternoon of this day I was taking a walk with the steward of the convent in the neighbourhood, and as we returned, towards sunset, he begged me to take some refreshment with him in his cell. Scarcely had he entered the room, when, resuming our former subject of conversation, he said: “And I, too, have read a Septuagint” – i.e. a copy of the Greek translation made by the Seventy. And so saying, he took down from the corner of the room a bulky kind of volume wrapped up in a red cloth and laid it before me. I unrolled the cover and discovered to my great surprise, not only those very fragments which, fifteen yearsbefore, I had taken out of the basket, but also other parts of the Old Testament, the New Testament complete, and, in addition, the Epistle of Barnabas and a part of the Pastor of Hermas. Full of joy, which this time I had the self-command to conceal from the steward and the rest of the community, I asked, as if in a careless way, permission to take the manuscript in to my sleeping chamber to look over it more at leisure. There by myself I could give way to the transport of joy which I felt. I Knew that I held in my hand the most precious biblical treasure in existence – a document whose age and importance exceeded that of all the manuscripts which I had examined during twemty years study of the subject.
And there we have it. When we turn as James White directs us to Tischendorf’s account, we find no such thing as White asserts. No doubt, it was only after the monks perceived Tischendorf’s excitement, that realizing the age of the document, they “would not part with it at any price”, and wrapped it in red cloth.
KJV only advocates are right therefore, when we claim that Sinaiticus was found in a waste paper basket. No mythology here!
 Dean John William Burgon, who, unlike Tischendorf, combined faithfulness with his considerable scholarship had this to say about Tischendorf. “Which of this most inconstant critic’s texts are we to select? Surely not the last, in which an exaggerated preference for a single Manuscript which he has had the good fortune to discover has betrayed him into an almost child-like infirmity of critical judgment.” And again, “It has been ascertained that his discovery of Codex Aleph caused his eighth edition (1865-72) to differ from his seventh in no less than 3505 places, -“to the scandal of the science of Comparative Criticism, as well as to his own grave discredit for discernment and consistency.””